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阀门的水锤效应

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浏览:- 发布日期:2021-09-04 13:08:24【

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水锤效应Water hammer effect ) 

是指当打开的阀门突然关闭,由于压力水流的惯性,产生水流冲击波,并产生破坏作用,这就是水利学当中的水锤效应,也就是正水锤。

It refers to that when the open valve is suddenly closed, due to the inertia of pressure water flow, water flow shock wave is generated and destructive effect is generated. This is the "water hammer effect" in hydraulics, that is, positive water hammer.

相反,关闭的阀门在突然打开后,也会产生水锤,叫负水锤,也有一定的破坏力,但没有前者大。

On the contrary, after the closed valve is suddenly opened, it will also produce a water hammer, called negative water hammer, which also has a certain destructive force, but it is not as big as the former.

水锤效应就好像是追尾,最前面的车突然停车了,为后面的车未及时发现,从而造成了连环追尾事故,致使最前面的车破坏严重。水锤效应就是与这个类似。

The water hammer effect is like a rear end collision. The front car suddenly stopped because the rear car was not found in time, resulting in a series of rear end accidents and serious damage to the front car. The water hammer effect is similar to this.

 

水锤效应

通常,在阀门接近关闭时闭合元件突然吸入阀座,称为溶缸闭锁效应。

溶缸闭锁效应是由低推力执行机构所造成的,该执行机构没有足够的推力以保持在接近阀座的位置,导致泵的突然关闭或阀门的突然关闭,从而产生水锤效应。对于控制阀,在某些情况下,快开型流量特性的阀门也能导致水锤效应。

Usually, when the valve is close to closing, the closing element suddenly sucks into the valve seat, which is called the cylinder locking effect.

The locking effect of the dissolving cylinder is caused by the low thrust actuator, which does not have enough thrust to keep close to the valve seat, resulting in the sudden closure of the pump or the sudden closure of the valve, resulting in water hammer effect. For control valves, in some cases, valves with fast opening flow characteristics can also cause water hammer effect.   

虽然水锤产生很大的噪音,但真正的损害是由机械失效造成的。因为由动能急剧地变化成静态的管线压力,水锤会冲破管线或损伤管子支架和损害管线接头。对于阀门,水锤能够通过阀芯产生严重振动,它可能导致阀芯、垫片或填料的失效。

Although the water hammer makes a lot of noise, the real damage is caused by mechanical failure. Because of the sharp change from kinetic energy to static pipeline pressure, water hammer will break through the pipeline or damage the pipe support and pipeline joint. For valves, water hammer can produce serious vibration through the valve core, which may lead to the failure of the valve core, gasket or packing.


水锤效应破坏

对于阀门,防止水锤的办法是防止系统任何突然的压力变化。

For valve,the way to prevent water hammer is to prevent any sudden any pressure changes in the system.  

包括放慢阀门本身的关闭速度或当闭合元件接近阀座时提供较大程度的拉力和刚性。为防止压力波动,阀门应以均匀变动的速度进行关闭。在某些情况下,当使用快开特性,可以要求改变为等百分比特性。对于在接近阀座时必须节流的控制阀,应当使用输出推力足够大的执行机构,如活塞式气动执行机构或液压执行机构,或在手动旋转的操作器的行程套管上设置特殊缺口,将减少或防止溶缸闭锁效应。在管线系统上设置某种类型的防波动措施也能减少水锤。可使用压力泄放阀或缓冲桶完成。此外气体可被注入系统内,气体的注入能减少流体的密度并提供某些压缩性以处理任何突然的波动。

This includes slowing down the closing speed of the valve itself or providing a greater degree of tension and rigidity when the closing element approaches the valve seat. In order to prevent pressure fluctuation, the valve shall be closed at a uniform change speed. In some cases, when the quick open feature is used, it can be required to change to the equal percentage feature. For the control valve that must be throttled when approaching the valve seat, an actuator with sufficient output thrust, such as piston pneumatic actuator or hydraulic actuator, or a special notch shall be set on the stroke sleeve of the manually rotating operator, which will reduce or prevent the cylinder locking effect. Setting some type of anti fluctuation measures on the pipeline system can also reduce water hammer. This can be done using a pressure relief valve or a buffer drum. In addition, gas can be injected into the system, which can reduce the density of the fluid and provide some compressibility to deal with any sudden fluctuations.

 

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